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Jane Austen

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Jane Austen (; 16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century. Austen's plots often explore the dependence of women on marriage in the pursuit of favourable social standing and economic security. Her works critique the novels of sensibility of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the transition to 19th-century literary realism. Her use of biting irony, along with her realism, humour, and social commentary, have long earned her acclaim among critics, scholars, and popular audiences alike.With the publications of Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1816), she achieved success as a published writer. She wrote two additional novels, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, both published posthumously in 1818, and began another, eventually titled Sanditon, but died before its completion. She also left behind three volumes of juvenile writings in manuscript, a short epistolary novel Lady Susan, and another unfinished novel, The Watsons. Her six full-length novels have rarely been out of print, although they were published anonymously and brought her moderate success and little fame during her lifetime. A significant transition in her posthumous reputation occurred in 1833, when her novels were republished in Richard Bentley's Standard Novels series, illustrated by Ferdinand Pickering, and sold as a set. They gradually gained wider acclaim and popular readership. In 1869, fifty-two years after her death, her nephew's publication of A Memoir of Jane Austen introduced a compelling version of her writing career and supposedly uneventful life to an eager audience. Austen has inspired a large number of critical essays and literary anthologies. Her novels have inspired many films, from 1940's Pride and Prejudice to more recent productions like Sense and Sensibility (1995), Emma (1996), Mansfield Park (1999), Pride & Prejudice (2005), and Love & Friendship (2016)... Charlotte Brontë was a British novelist, the eldest out of the three famous Brontë sisters whose novels have become standards of English literature. See also Emily Brontë and Anne Brontë.

Charlotte Brontë was born in Thornton, Yorkshire, England, the third of six children, to Patrick Brontë (formerly "Patrick Brunty"), an Irish Anglican clergyman, and his wife, Maria Branwell. In April 1820 the family moved a few miles to Haworth, a remote town on the Yorkshire moors, where Patrick had been appointed Perpetual Curate. This is where the Brontë children would spend most of their lives. Maria Branwell Brontë died from what was thought to be cancer on 15 September 1821, leaving five daughters and a son to the care of her spinster sister Elizabeth Branwell, who moved to Yorkshire to help the family.

In August 1824 Charlotte, along with her sisters Emily, Maria, and Elizabeth, was sent to the Clergy Daughters' School at Cowan Bridge in Lancashire, a new school for the daughters of poor clergyman (which she would describe as Lowood School in Jane Eyre). The school was a horrific experience for the girls and conditions were appalling. They were regularly deprived of food, beaten by teachers and humiliated for the slightest error. The school was unheated and the pupils slept two to a bed for warmth. Seven pupils died in a typhus epidemic that swept the school and all four of the Brontë girls became very ill - Maria and Elizabeth dying of tuberculosis in 1825. Her experiences at the school deeply affected Brontë - her health never recovered and she immortalised the cruel and brutal treatment in her novel, Jane Eyre. Following the tragedy, their father withdrew his daughters from the school.

At home in Haworth Parsonage, Charlotte and the other surviving children — Branwell, Emily, and Anne — continued their ad-hoc education. In 1826 her father returned home with a box of toy soldiers for Branwell. They would prove the catalyst for the sisters' extraordinary creative development as they immediately set to creating lives and characters for the soldiers, inventing a world for them which the siblings called 'Angria'. The siblings became addicted to writing, creating stories, poetry and plays. Brontë later said that the reason for this burst of creativity was that:

'We were wholly dependent on ourselves and each other, on books and study, for the enjoyments and occupations of life. The highest stimulus, as well as the liveliest pleasure we had known from childhood upwards, lay in attempts at literary composition.'

After her father began to suffer from a lung disorder, Charlotte was again sent to school to complete her education at Roe Head school in Mirfield from 1831 to 1832, where she met her lifelong friends and correspondents, Ellen Nussey and Mary Taylor. During this period (1833), she wrote her novella The Green Dwarf under the name of Wellesley. The school was extremely small with only ten pupils meaning the top floor was completely unused and believed to be supposedly haunted by the ghost of a young lady dressed in silk. This story fascinated Brontë and inspired the figure of Mrs Rochester in Jane Eyre.

Brontë left the school after a few years, however she swiftly returned in 1835 to take up a position as a teacher, and used her wages to pay for Emily and Anne to be taught at the school. However, teaching did not appeal to Brontë and in 1838 she left Roe Head to become a governess to the Sidgewick family - this was partly from a sense of adventure and a desire to see the world, and partly from financial necessity.

Charlotte became pregnant soon after her wedding, but her health declined rapidly and, according to Gaskell, she was attacked by "sensations of perpetual nausea and ever-recurring faintness." She died, with her unborn child, on 31 March 1855, aged 38. .

Books: 951

Hometown: Thornton, Yorkshire, England

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Jane Austen - Pride and Prejudice

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Pride and Prejudice

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Jane Austen - Persuasion

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Jane Austen - Emma

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Jane Austen - Mansfield Park

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Jane Austen - Northanger Abbey

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Jane Austen - Emma

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Jane Austen - Sense and Sensibility

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Sense and Sensibility

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Jane Austen - Pride and Prejudice

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Pride and Prejudice

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Jane Austen - Love and friendship

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Jane Austen - Lady Susan

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Lady Susan

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Jane Austen - Pride and Prejudice

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Pride and Prejudice

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Jane Austen - Sense and Sensibility

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Sense and Sensibility

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Jane Austen - Love and Friendship

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Love and Friendship

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Jane Austen - The Watsons

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The Watsons

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Jane Austen - Persuasion

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Persuasion

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Jane Austen - Northanger Abbey

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Jane Austen - Emma

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Jane Austen - Mansfield Park

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Jane Austen - Emma

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Jane Austen - Lady Susan

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Jane Austen - Pride and Prejudice

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Jane Austen - Lady Susan

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Jane Austen - Orgullo y Prejuicio

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Jane Austen - Persuasion: Audio Edition

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Jane Austen - Emma: Audio Edition

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Jane Austen - Sense and Sensibility

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Sense and Sensibility

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Love and Freindship [sic]

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Jane Austen - Sense and Sensibility

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Jane Austen - Emma

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Peter J. Leithart - Jane Austen

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Jane Austen

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Jane Austen - Sense and Sensibility

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Sense and Sensibility

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Jane Austen on Social Media


@maggiegeewriter: J Austen’s ace editor @jantodd asks in fab new edn, was Jane’s last novel set in Ramsgate? @ramsgatefest on sale at FR…

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@sivriikalemler: Dünyayı tanıdıkça hoşnutsuzluğum daha da artıyor; her geçen gün insan karakterinin tutarsızlığına ve akıllı, duygulu gö…

ildem (ildemla)

@sivriikalemler: Dünyayı tanıdıkça hoşnutsuzluğum daha da artıyor; her geçen gün insan karakterinin tutarsızlığına ve akıllı, duygulu gö…

Novatio (Novatio9)

@qikipedia: Jane Austen’s family didn’t think it was worth mentioning on her gravestone that she was a writer (Image: Spencer Means). ht…

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